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Replacing the manaka
The modern Garínagu (plural of Garífuna) are descendants of Africans who emerged
as a new ethnic group, fully assimilated to the Kalípona language and culture of
St. Vincent Island in the Caribbean before the 19th century. The Kalíponas were native
peoples of the Lesser Antilles, and are sometimes called ‘Island Carib’ in the literature.
A Garífuna may or may not have Kalípona ancestry. Some modern Garínagu in Central
America may not descend directly from the original Garífuna group from St. Vincent,
bur rather from other Afro-descendant groups (Blacks from Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto
Rico or descendants of early Africans in Guatemala and Honduras) who were already
established in the coastal region of Guatemala and Honduras before the arrival of
the Garínagu at the end of the 1700s and the early 1800s. However, by means of ancestral
intermingling with the Garínagu, they would have emerged as full-fledged Garínagu
The Garífuna Nation is that combined area of Garífuna settlements on the Caribbean
coast of Central America that includes Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and to some extent,
Nicaragua. Today, Garínagu are found all over the world, including all parts of
Central America and concentrations in New York, Miami and Los Angeles.
This web site discusses the global linguistic and ethno-history of the Garínagu,
but it is ultimately dedicated to the Garífuna settlement of Livingston, Guatemala
(Labuga, Wadimalu). Though hundreds of thousands of Garífuna families have lived
in Labuga for over two centuries, more dominant ethnic groups – in an effort to take
advantage of Garífuna world fame and capitalize on increasing tourism in Labuga –
threaten the Garífuna way of life. All pictures, links, blogs and current event
information only involve the Garínagu of Labuga, Wadimalu.
This web site does not promote links that demonstrate a one-sided, biased or a myopic
perspective of Garífuna history. Blogs, however, are always uncensored, reflect the
personal opinion of the writer and are very welcome! Unless otherwise indicated,
the author of this site is the photographer of all the pictures.